Investigating the Effect of Hierarchical Carbon Micro/Nano Spheres on the Surface Wettability: Experimental and Theoretical Study

Document Type : Articles


1 Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, I. R. of Iran

2 Department of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O.Box: 11155-9161, Tehran, IR of Iran


Carbon spheres with controllable structures (i.e., nano and microstructure)
were prepared by using a hydrothermal method. By adjusting the concentration of
glucose solution at a both constant temperature and constant process time in a sealed
autoclave, the total size of carbon spheres (CSs) was changed from nano to microscale.
Then micronanobinary carbon spheres structure (MNCS) was successfully obtained by
coating colloidal solution of carbon nanospheres (CNSs, average diameter of 186 nm)
and microspheres (CMSs, average diameter of 5 μm) on the FTO substrates. It was
realized that by annealing of the carbon spheres under vacuum condition, their
functional groups were reduced, therefore, this effected on the wetting behavior of
carbon spheres. The effect of hierarchical roughness as a beneficial factor on the
superhydrophobicity of CSs was analyzed by the investigation of the contact angle
(CA). The highest CA was measured for the mixture structures containing both the
micro and nanoscale spheres. Based on the new research, CA of the surface with
micronanobinary structure is larger than the nanostructure and the nanostructure is
larger than the microstructure and above all, theoretical calculations confirmed the
experimental measurements.


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