Impressive Reduction of Dark Current in InSb Infrared Photodetector to achieve High Temperature Performance

Document Type : Articles


Department of Electrical Engineering, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.


Infrared photo detectors have vast and promising applications in military,
industrial and other fields. In this paper, we present a method for improving the
performance of an infrared photodetector based on an InSb substance. To achieve good
performance at high temperatures, thermal noise and intrusive currents should be
reduced. For this purpose, a five-layer hetero structure photodetector based on We
introduce n+ InSb / n+ In1-xAlxSb / π InSb / p+ In1-xGaxSb / p+ InSb to improve the
thermal performance in the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) range. With inserting of
two thin layers from InAlSb and InGaSb on both side of the new (π) optical absorber created a
barrier in the structure that prevents from entrance of diffusion currents and noise carriers at n+
and p+ regions into the active area. And also by reducing the density of unwanted carriers in the
active layer, leads to decrease dark current, which is the main limiting factor for photodetectors’
performance based on InSb. Our proposed design reduced 49% dark current, increased
57% resistivity (R0) and increased 39% detectivity at 300K. Simulation of the structure
was done using the SILVACO ATLAS software.


1] A.Rogalski, and K.Chrzanowski, Infrared devices and techniques, OPTOELECTRONICS REVIEW 10(2), 111–136, 2002.
[2] E. Michel, and M. Razeghi, Recent advances in sb-based materials for uncooled infrared photodetectors, OPTO-ELECTRONIC REVIEW 6(1), 11-23, 1998.
Impressive Reduction of Dark Current in InSb Infrared Photodetector to achieve High … * 93
[3] A. Rogalski, New material systems for third generation inferared photodetectors, OPTO-ELECTRONICS REVIEW 16(4), 458–482, 2008.
[4] Xin Tang, Guang fu Wu and King Wai Chiu Lai, Plasmon resonance enhanced colloidal HgSe quantum dot filterless narrowband photodetectors for mid-wave infrared, Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 2017
[5] Vincenzo Pusino, Chengzhi Xie, Ata Khalid, Member IEEE, Matthew J. Steer, Marc Sorel, Iain G. Thayne, and David R. S. Cumming, Fellow, IEEE, InSb Photodiodes for Monolithic Active Focal Plane Arrays on GaAs Substrates, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 63, NO. 8, AUGUST 2016
[6] Mingsheng Long, Anyuan Gao, Peng Wang, Hui Xia, Claudia Ott, Chen Pan, Yajun Fu, Erfu Liu, Xiaoshuang Chen, Wei Lu, Tom Nilges, Jianbin Xu, Xiaomu Wang, Weida Hu, Feng Miao, Room temperature high-detectivity mid-infrared photodetectors based on black arsenic phosphorus, SCIENCE ADVANCES RESEARCH ARTICLE, 3: e1700589, 2017
[7] BO WEN JIA, Kian Hua Tan, Wan Khai Loke, Satrio Wicaksono, Kwang Hong Lee, and Soon Fatt Yoon, Monolithic Integration of InSb Photodetector on Silicon for Mid-Infrared Silicon Photonics, ACS Photonics, DOI: 10.1021/acsphotonics.7b01546, 2018
[8] Sajjad Khalili, Mohammad Danaie, Interface analysis of indium antimonide and passive layer in infrared detector and presenting a new structure to improve dark current, Superlattices and Microstructures, DOI: 10.1016/j.spmi.2018.01.011, S0749-6036(17)32210-3, 2018
[9] Muhammad Shafa, Haining Ji, Lei Gao, Peng Yu, Qinghua Ding, Zhihua Zhou, Handong Li, Xiaobin Niu, Jiang Wu, Zhiming M. Wang, Mid-infrared photodetectors based on InSb micro/nanostructures grown on low-cost mica substrates, Materials Letters, DOI:, S0167-577X(16)30065-9, 2016
[10] Chee Leong Tan and Hooman Mohseni, Emerging technologies for high performance infrared detectors, Nanophotonics,,2017
[11] Kun Zhang, Yilun Wang, Weifeng Jin, Xin Fang, Yi Wan, Yinfeng Zhang, Jingzhi Han and Lun Dai, High-Quality InSb Nanocrystals: Synthesis and Application in Graphene Based Near-Infrared Photodetector, journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry View Article Online, DOI: 10.1039/C6RA00503A, 2016
[12] Bringhurst, R. The Elements of Typographic Style, 2nd ed. Point Roberts, WA: Hartley and Marks, p. 282, 1997.
[13] A. Rogalski, Heterostructure infrared photodiodes, semiconductor physics, Quantum Electronic & Optoelectronics, 3(2), 111-120, 2000.
[14] E. Sijercˇic´, K. Mueller, and B. Pejcˇinovic, Simulation of InSb devices using drift–diffusion equations, Solid-State Electronics, 49, 1414–1421, 2005.
[15] A. Tevke, C. Besikci, C. V. Hoof, and G. Borghs, InSb Infrared p-i-n Photodtectors Grown on GaAs Coated Si Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy, Solid-State Electronics, 42(6), 1039-1044, 1998.
[16] Ghatei Khiabani Azar, H., Rasouli Saghai, H. Manipulating frequency-dependent diffraction, the linewidth, center frequency and coupling efficiency using periodic corrugations. Opt Quant Electron, 48: 464.1-12, 2016.
[17] T. Ashley, C. T. Elliott, and A. M. White, Non-equilibrium devices for infrared detection, SPIE, 572, Infrared Technology XI, 1985.
[18] A. Piotrowski, P. Madejczyk, W. Gawron, K. Kłos, J. Pawluczyk, M. Grudzień, J. Piotrowski, and A. Rogalski, MOCVD HgCdTe heterostructures for uncooled infrared Photodetectors, Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices II, SPIE, 5732, 273-284, 2005.
[19] M. Nadimi and A. Sadr, Computer Modeling of MWIR Homojunction Photodetector based on Indium Antimonide, Advanced Materials Research, 383-390, 6806-6810, 2012.
[20] P. Chakrabarti, A. Krier, and A. F. Morgan, Double-heterojunction photodetector for mid infrared applications: theoretical model and experimental results, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, 42(9), 2614–2623, 2003.
[21] R. K. Lal, M. Jain, S. Gupta, and P. Chakrabarti, An analytical model of a double-heterostructure mid-infrared photodetector, Infrared Physics & Technology 44, 125–132, 2003.
[22] T. Ashley, A. B. Dean, C. T. Elliott, A. D. Johnson, G. J. Pryce, A. M. White, and C. R. Whitehouse, A heterojunction minority carrier barrier for lnSb devices, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 8, 5386-5389, 1993.
[23] M. Nadimi, and A. Sadr, Simulation of High Operating Temperature Mid-Infrared Photodetector Based on Indium Antimonide, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 13(11), 1510-1514, 2013.
[24] J. E. Bowers, and Y. G. Wey, High-Speed Photodetectors, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of California, handbook of optic, Chapter 17, 1995.
[25] I. Bhattacharya, Design and Modeling of Very High-Efficiency Multijunction Solar Cells, Florida State University Libraries, Summer Semester, 2013.
Impressive Reduction of Dark Current in InSb Infrared Photodetector to achieve High … * 95
[26] H. PAGE, The Intrinsic Carrier Dynamics of InGaAs/AIGaAs Single Quantum Well, Strained-Layer, Semiconductor Lasers, PhD. Thesis, Surrey University, 1998.
[27] R. Penumaka, B. Tiwari, I. Bhattacharya, and S. Foo, Indium Gallium Antimonide a better bottom subcell layer in III-V multijunction solar cells, Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), IEEE 42nd, 1-5, 2015.
[28] M. Nadimi, and A. Sadr, Modeling and Simulation of High Operating Temperature MWIR Photo Detector Based on Mercury Cadmium Telluride, International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering, 3(4), 597-599, 2011.
[29] P. K. Maurya, and P. Chakrabarti, Modeling and simulation of heterojunction photovoltaic detector based on InAs0.15Sb0.85 for free space optical communication, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 20, 359-362, 2009.
[30] Hamid Faezinia, Mahdi Zavvari, Quantum modeling of light absorption in graphene based photo-transistors, Journal of Optoelectronical Nanostructures, Winter 2017 / Vol. 2, No. 1
[31] Khadijeh Hemmati, Esmaiel Saievar-Iranizad, Amir Bayat, Investigation of hydrothermal process time on the size of carbon micro- and nano-spheres, Journal of Optoelectronical Nanostructures Spring 2017 / Vol. 2, No. 2
[32] Arash Rezaei, Bahram Azizollah-Ganji, Morteza Gholipour, Effects of the Channel Length on the Nanoscale Field Effect Diode Performance, Journal of Optoelectronical Nanostructures, Spring 2018 / Vol. 3, No. 2
[33] Alireza Keshavarz, Zahra Abbasi, Spatial soliton pairs in an unbiased photovoltaic-photorefractive crystal circuit, Journal of Optoelectronical Nanostructures, Spring 2016 / Vol. 1, No.1
[34] Hamid Faezinia, Mahdi Zavvari, Quantum modeling of light absorption in graphene based photo-transistors, Journal of Optoelectronical Nanostructures, Winter 2017 / Vol. 2, No. 1 [35] Abdolkarim Afroozeh, Seyed Ebrahim Pourmand, Telepathic Communication Generation using Nano Fiber Ring, Journal of Optoelectronical Nanostructures, Winter 2018 / Vol. 3, No. 1
[36] Sayed Mohammad Sadegh Hashemi Nassab, Mohsen Imanieh, Abbas Kamaly, The Effect of Doping and the Thickness of the Layers on CIGS Solar Cell Efficiency, The Quarterly Journal of Optoelectronical Nanostructures, Spring 2016 / Vol. 1, No.1